First thing to do is to check the contents of the package(s) against the components listed in the Packing Slips with each module. This will allow you to get familiar with the components while making certain that everything is there before you begin. Should we have goofed, and there is a shortage or omission, please report the fact to us immediately.


In certain respects, building this kit is akin to jeweler's work, soldering and handling small parts, and having to inspect these carefully for flaws. In order to do this work with accuracy and efficiency, you will need a good table where small parts may be left overnight or longer, undisturbed, a comfortable chair and, especially, good lighting. Good lighting is a must for inspecting solder joints for stray wires, loose connections, etc.... at close range.

You will also need the proper tools. Unlike many electronic kits where you can do with utilitiy pliers when needle-nose are called for, our kits can only be built with the right tools. The main reason for this is the sheer number of miniature parts and connections that have to be handled.

The list below includes a summary list of the tools and supplies you will need. We recommend that you check through it and purchase or borrow whatever tools you do not yet possess before starting to build the kit. Manufacturers listed are those which, in our experience, provide the best quality, economically for the purpose.

In case you do not know where to go to buy electronic supplies in your area, we recommend the following procedure: Look up "Electronic Parts and Supplies" in the Yellow Pages and call the various listings one by one asking them whether or not they stoctk the manufacturers listed below. You may rest assured that a store or distributor handling the manufacturers listed below will provide professional service and parts. This is not always the case at the various "shacks" and "warehouses" etc... where often enough a higher price is paid for sub-standard tools and supplies.


Wire Stripper - Buy any model made by K. Miller Tool Company. Model 100 is highly recommended. It may be spotted by its brilliant yellow handles. Xcelite Model #100 is exactly the same, and may be easier to find.

Diagonal Cutting Pliers 4" or 5" Electronic Type - Recommended tool is the Microshear Model 170. Other suitable manufacturers are M. Klien or Xcelite (Xcelite Model 97CG is very good).

Long Nose Plier 4" Electronic Type - Recommended: M. Klien or Xtelite.

60 Watt Soldering iron with 3/32" or 1/8" Wide Screwdriver Tip - Recommended model is Weller Company Model WP60 with tip CT5A8 or CT5B8. Even better, but more expensive, is the Weller controlled output soldering station model WTCPN. Do not use 25 watt irons, or irons greater than 60 watts. Never use a soldering gun for this delicate assembly process.

7/16" Full Hollow Shaft Nut Driver - This is for banana jack nuts. It must be hollow shagt or it will not work.

1/2" Nut Driver - This is used to tighten full sized phone jacks. If your system does not have phone jacks (or if there are only one or two), then you can get by without this one.

Screwdrivers and Nut Drivers or small Crescent Wrench - These will be used in various phases of assembly. Xcelite Screwdriver-Nutdriver 11 Piece Set #PS-130 is a good all-around economical assortment. This assortment has nutdrivers which can be used to tighten the potentiometers and mini-jacks as well as Phillips and Slotted type screwdrivers. The 7/16" Full Hollow Shaft Nut Driver is still required to do thw banana jacks.

Small Adjsutment type screwdriver - The best choice here is Xcelite model R3322 or R3323. A small jeweler's-type screwdriver will also work. This is used to tighten knobs and will be used often after your kit is assembled.

X-Acto Knife - With a few extra blades. X-Acto No. 1 with No. 11 blade is recommended.

De-Soldering Tool - You can use the inexpensive bulb type (about $2) or the spring-loaded type (about $10). You won't find any steps in this manual that ask you to de-solder connections, but this comes in real handy when you make a mistake or need to change things later on.


3/16" Wide Masking Tape

Roll of Plastic Electrical Tape

Rosin Core Solder - Use rosin core solder only! Use of acid core solder (used for plumbing) will damage the kit and voids our warranty. Recommended are Kester Company or Ersin rosin core in your kit. Best is Kester formula SN63 .031" Diameter. Second best is any 20 gauge or 60/40 alloy.


There are actually three packets of information you will need to use when assembling the kit: The Assembly Manual, its Appendices, and the Wiring Diagrams for each module.

The Assembly Manual lists the steps to be done in sequence when building a PANEL. These steps consist mainly of "what to do" instructions. Associated with the Manual is a series of Appendices. The Appendices are primarily "how to" instructions. For example, when performing the various Steps in the Manual, you are often first asked to read over an Appendix. Here you will find detailed "how to" instructions on various aspects of the kit assembly.

Having once learned to do a job through reading the "how to" instructions, you will probabaly not have to go over the Appendices again except to refresh your memory. You will however have to go through the Manual several times over, specifically if your system consists of more than one Panel. The normal procedure to follow when building a multi-Panel system is to build it one Panel at a time, carrying the Panel through all steps until it is fully wired, hooked up to the Power Supply, and given a preliminary test through an amplifier and loudspeakers.

We have worked hard to make the step-by-step instructions in the Manual as short and clear as possible. Thus, the construction of the Panels will be quite speedy, involved mostly with actual building time and not bogging you down with obscure or redundant instructions.

Many of the steps in the Manual must be done by looking at the Wiring Diagrams for the modules on the Panel being worked on. The Wiring Diagrams show construction details as they apply to specific modules. For example, a Panel might consist of 3 oscillators and 5 filters,. In order to build this Panel you will need the Wiring Diagrams for these two modules.


If you are building a particularly large system, you may wish to adopt another way of building it than a Panel at a time. You should still build one entire Panel first. This first Panel will get you accustomed to the process of building a Serge System. Later, you can proceed by building all of the remaining Panels simultaneously, a step at a time. With especially large systems, this procedure saves time in not having to "shift gears" as often, and obtains for you the advantage of assembly line methods.

Note - the later manual I had was missing pages 5 to 11. Text in brown has been substituted from an older manual.


If you have a multi-PANEL kit, you will want to choose which PANEL to build first. This is because the first PANEL will be used to test the proper functioning of all the other PANELS. We advise you to choose a PANEL which contains either one of the following modules: DUAL NEGATIVE SLEW or DUAL POSITIVE SLEW. These two modules are outstanding because they can provide the signals needed to test any module in the Serge Catalog.

If your system does not include either of the modules, you should pick a PANEL with the laraest number of modules from the following list: VC ENVELOPE GENERATOR, DUAL VC SLEW, VC OSCILLATOR, VC FILTER, NEW TIMBRAL OSCILLATOR, VC FILTER EXTENDED RANGE. The virtue of these modules is that in a test situation they can function as audible voltmeters (through external loudspeakers).


If there is one thing we'd like to emphasize, it is that you should check, re-check and triple check your own work as you go through the steps. As you will note, quite a few of the steps contained in the Manual are "checkpoints" concerned solely with checking work done in a previous step. We have tried to be as specific as possible in focussing your attention to potential problems and flaws that typically occur when building a Serge system. And believe us, these faults occur even in the most carefully performed work, by the most experienced assemblers.

So please give yourself the space to look over your work with patience, and especially, with sharp eyes assisted by good lighting. Also, please perform the sub-steps listed in the Checkpoints one at a time, even though it may seem you are going over the same work again and again. Time spent on these "quality" checks will save much time later on.


Please be sure to read the pages of revisions attached to the Kit Manual before doing any building of the kit. These pages include up-dated instructions which are absolutely essential for buildinq your kit.


Revisions/ page 1

IMPORTANT! Revisions 1,3 & 4 entail steps which should be performed before all other steps!

Several improvements have been made since we wrote the KIT MANUAL. These include the following:

1. Previously, our kits were shipped with the faceplate graphics already installed on the PANELS. We felt we had to do this since spraying lacquer over the PANELS was a delicate process. Recently, we have switched over to the use of an extremely tough pressure sensitive overlay made of transparent mylar. This of course saves us having to apply the graphics on the faceplates, since it is a job that can well be done by the kit-builder. Please follow the instructions listed below:

A. You w.ill need an exacto knife, a dustfree table (make sure to wipe with a moist cloth!), a new newspaper (also has to be clean of dust), and either a light table or a window.

B. Retrieve the metal PANELS from the shipment. Clean them using detergent and warm water. Make sure that the holes are free of the very fine metal dust left over from the metal punching operation. Q-tips may be handy for doing this.

c. Retrieve the faceplate graphics. If you have access to a light table, use it. If not, tape a PANEL to a window using masking tape at either end (3/8" clearance).

d. Apply the stick-on graphics for the PANEL. This is done in the following manner. Peel off the top-most piece of backing from a module's graphics. Align the holes in the PANEL with the circles on the graphics. When the alignment is done, apply pressure to stick the graphics on the PANEL. Thereafter, peel off the remaining pieces of backing and stick the graphics fully on the PANEL using a downward sweep of the hand. Do all of these steps carefully, since it is hard to un-stick the paper... NOTE: our new PANELS have overlapping holes. These allow us to have a wide variety of layouts. In all cases, there is only one way to stick a module's graphics on, hopefully you won't have any difficulty...

e. Having stuck all graphics on, use a piece of backing material to burnish them perfectly flat against the PANEL. Don't apply too much pressure when doing this. Just enough pressure should be applied to make sure that there are no air bubbles, etc...

f. Lay the PANEL flat on well flattened newspaper sheets, front face down. Using the metal as a straightedge, carefully trim the excess paper off the PANEL with an exacto knife. (The newspaper is there to protect the table).

Revisions/ page 2

g. Burnish the paper at the PANEL'S edges to make sure that these still adhere well.

h. Retrieve the rolled-up pieces of mylar. Flatten them out using your hand against the backing. Don't worry about bubbles or folds.

i. If, perchance, the PANEL you are working on is one which is not totally filled out with modules (16" worth), carefully measure the mylar and cut it so that approximately 1/4" excess material is left over the needed dimension (lengthwise) to accomodate the modules. Save the remaining p1ece(s) of mylar for when you install new modules.

j. Lay the mylar face down on an ultra flat and ultra clean surface. Peel the backing off. Carefully align the PANEL you are working on against the mylar, top edge against and parallel to the top edge of the mylar. Lay the PANEL evenly down against the mylar.

k. Turn the assembly over. Burnish the mylar against the PANEL using a soft piece of cloth. Do this quite thoroughly, taking your time. It is easy to overlook the edges, so take care! Don't worry that faint markings remain (usually where there were folds in the mylar). These actually disappear in time due to the very active nature of the adhesive.

l. The PANEL being well burnished, lay it face down on the newsprint. As before, carefully trim the mylar using an exacto blade. You may wish to trim it twice, first from the back, then from the front using a tapering angle with the exacto. This last step ensures that the mylar won't catch and be peeled off accidently.

m. If you have less than 16" of modules, you will also want to trim the excess off the front face of the PANEL. Do this using a metal ruler, aligning it precisely in line with the edge of the graphics of the end module.

n. Burnish the PANEL once again, especially the edges.

o. When, later on in the KIT MANUAL, you are asked to cut holes into the faceplate, note that the new PANELS (with double eyed holes) and the mylar make it a more demanding task. Specifically, cutting the holes must be done using the circle on the graphics as a guide.

p. VERY IMPORTANT!!!! Holes in the mylar should be cut large and neatly enough so that the jacks & other components be able to be inserted without feeling any drag from excess mylar. If this is not done, installing the jacks & components will produce a very unsightly swelling up of the mylar... A good technique to use to ensure open holes is to go over a cut hole with the exacto knife at an angle to give a slight taper to the edge of a hole.



We have switched over to the use of hot molded Alien Bradley potentiometers. These have different markings than the pots we were using previously. The Wiring Diagrams still have the old designations; correlate these with the new ones as follow:

AH8541 503-R"log"
AH8540 503-M"lin"

Since the new pots are square, are bigger, and have a somewhat different lug-terminal layout, a certain amount of interpretation will be necessary when assembling the kit. We believe that this is something you can do easily (we hope!). However, there are a few things you should know:

1. Being square, if a pot is near a standoff it will get in the way. Turning it at a slight angle, however, will make room. Therefore the positioning of the pot will necessarily be at variance with what is shown on the wiring diagram...

2. Wherever a resistor is shown to be connected to, and routed over the body of a potentiometer, make sure that it is laid as flat as possible against the top of the pot. The A-B pots are somewhat larger, so more care must be taken with such resistors that they don't inadvertently touch the PC boards.

3. The middle lug of the AB pots allows a very convenient trick: wherever a resistor is shown connected to it, it can be placed up and flat against the pot's case, in between the other two lugs as-in the "following illustration:

Wherever possible, if you use this layout, you should connect the resistor to the pot before installing the pot into the PANEL. Otherwise, it may be hard to solder the resistor to the lug in the cramped space between pots, etc...
If you have any doubts concerning the possibility that a lead or componet above a pot's case might touch the PC board's traces, lay a piece of electrical tape on it.


Previously we installed the standoffs on the PANEL prior to shipment. We are no longer doing this as they can now easily be installed by the kit builder. To do this, please follow the steps listed hereafter:

1. Read on the KIT MANUAL to get a feel of how things are put together. As you will see, the PC rack is fitted PC trace inwards against the PANEL, the appropriate PC boards being directly underneath REVISIONS/ page 4
the appropriate faceplate graphics. In the cases where a PC board is the same size as the graphics, there are no problems. In the case where it is smaller than its corresponding graphics, the problem arises where to align it. This is especially crucial with regards to the placement of standoffs, since a PC rack is fastened to a PANEL using 4 standoff attached to the modules placed at opposite ends. The way to determine the way the PC board is to be aligned depends on whether or not the board has PC mounted potentiometers (long shaft). If it does, the alignment matters and should be taken into consideration if the PC board is to be used with standoffs. The standoffs should be attached to the free holes in the PANEL (directly over the mounting holes on the PC board). If the PC board doesn't have PC mounted pots, it may be positioned where most convenient.

Standoffs are installed in the following sequence:

1. Determine where they should go. Cut out the mylar using the exacto knife.

2. From the PANEL side, use a #4 screw with a flat washer. On the other side of the PANEL, install a lockwasher and the standoff. Tightening the standoff should be done using a hex wrench, keeping the screw immobile using a screwdriver.


We used to assemble the PC rack prior to shipment. Now it is up to the kit-builder. The way to do this is the following:

1. Put the PC boards for the modules on a PANEL in sequence in front of you, aligning them so that the components are (delicately) flat against the table, and so that the PC board's various markings are justified (i.e., can be read.)

2. Take the first module on the left and insert it between the two rails supplied with each PANEL. Use a rubber band to keep the rails together with the board.

3. A module at a time, insert the PC boards in the rails, using rubber bands to keep them together.

4. Align the PC boards as they should be spaced, and fasten them permanently using the nylon ties supplied with the kit. Normally, only 6 need be used, at both ends and the middle. The ties are inserted into standoff holes (or PC mounted potentiometer holes) and turned around the rail, tail into the tie's eye, and tightly bound. Excess tie should be trimmed.


Read APPENDIX A and then consult each of the individual module's wiring diagrams to cut out the holes in the Mylar for the banana jacks. Be very careful when cutting the holes where there are double holes in the metal panel. You must cut a circular hole around the center mark, being careful not to cut into the second hole position. Install the banana jacks according to the wiring diagram. Special color jacks are usually green, gray, yellow, or white.


A. Visually check each of the banana jacks's star-washer to see that they have been properly bent into the plastic body of the jacks. Each star-washer's inner circle of teeth should have been bent down to bite the jack in at least two places (using a screwdriver as described in the APPENDIX). (Modern jacks use nuts instead of these washers.)

B. Visually check the banana jacks from the faceplate side to see that they are all seated flush against the PANEL. Repair as needed.

C. One by one, test each jack on the PANEL by inserting a banana plug fully down and pulling it out energetically. Should the metal inner sleeve of a jack pull out along with the plug, repair the jack in the following manner: Re-insert the sleeve back into the jack and bend the jack's plug in such a way as to open up the small metal indentation which normally holds the sleeve from pulling out. The indentation should be open enough to lock the sleeve against the slot in the Jack's plastic case.


Read APPENDIX B and perform the following sub-steps. Skip inapplicable sub-steps.

1. Cut holes for all Linear Potentiometers and install all pots marked LIN. Install loosely, DO NOT TIGHTEN HEX NUTS.

Order of installation is: pot - lock washer - PANEL - shoulder washer - hex nut.

2. Cut all holes for Log Potentiometers and install pots marked LOG. Install as in previous step.

3. Cut all holes for switches and install according to wiring diagrams.

For momentary switch on the NOISE SOURCE the order of installation is: switch - Panel - lock washer - nut.

For all toggle switches, the order is: first hex nut - flat washer (notch pointing away from panel - PANEL - shoulder washer - lock washer - second hex nut.

Note: position first hex nut so that the switch's bushing only barely protrudes off the faceplate. Note, too, that the flat washer's bent tab must face away from the PANEL so as to not stress the switch.

5. Cut holes for mini-jacks. Install loosely. DO NOT TIGHTEN HEX NUT.

Installation order: jack - PANEL - shoulder washer - hex hut.

6. Cut holes for phone jacks. These are special oversize holes. If these are not pre~drilled when you receive the panel, then they can be drilled out with a 3/8 inch drill. Either a hand drill or a drill press may be used. Scoop out the My1ar hole, first, before drilling. It is a little heater to drill from the rear of the PANEL, then trim the Mylar with an exacto knife. Make sure to use a 3/8 inch drill specifically for metal, and not a wood drill bit.

T. Assemble all PC hoards for the LED's. Consult APPENDIX 0. Install as shown in the APPENDIX and the wiring diagrams fore each module. Cut out the holes for the LEDs and install as detailed in APENDIX 0.


Read APPENDIX C and position all panel mounted components as shown in the wiring Diagrams for the modules on the PANEL. Do this work one component at a time, and tighten hex-nuts in a permanent way.


A. Manually test each component for properly tightened nuts.

B. Look to see that all shoulder washers fit flush against the faceplate.


Read APPENDICES C, D, and E very carefully.

Perform the following two sub-steps for each of the modules, a module at a time, going from left to right on the PANEL. These steps are to be done with reference to the wiring Diagrams for the modules. If the PANEL you are working on has more than one of a given module, you may save time by performing the work assembly line fashion, i.e. step and repeat similar connections for all of the modules as a group.

I. Install and solder the bare wires shown on the WIRING DIAGRAM. (Shown as heavy lines). REMEMBER NOT TO SOLDER ANY LUG TO WHICH ADDITIONAL WIRES OR CUMPONENTS ARE SHOWN TO HAVE TO BE CONNECTED IN A FUTURE STEP. Do, however, make a good mechanical joint on these connections.

2. INSTALL AND SOLDER all electronic components shown on the Wiring Diagrams, following the instructions given in APPENDIX 6


A. Check every one of the soldered joints for too much solder. Rectify by re-soldering the faulty joint, melting the extra solder into the soldering iron tip, and shaking it off the tip.

B. Check for a rosin ring around the wire at each joint. Rosin rings, when they occur, can be found at a joint where wire and lug come in contact. Re-heat the joint until all of the rosin has boiled off and the solder joint looks "wet".

C. Check each joint for wire ends going nowhere. These loose ends should be snipped off. Solder joints should look like fists, and not have wires like fingers sticking out.

D. Check for proper routing. The routing should be straight and neat and not wobbly or slack. Furthermore, bare wires should be routed in such a manner as to hug the PANEL and avoid coming too close to the lugs of nearby components. Exceptions are 1) wiring between two jacks which should bridge the gap and not be allowed to touch the PANEL and 2) bare wire making connections between two or more resistors. Loose or sloppy routing may be corrected by straightening it out with needle nose pliers. Fold wires back on themselves where there is too much slack.

E. Check that the body of all resistors are no more than 1/8" away from the lugs they are soldered to. An exception to this rule is the use of a resistor to bridge 2 lugs.

F. Check the polarity markings of the capacitors to make sure they have been installed facing in the proper direction ("+" mark as in the Wiring Diagrams).

G. Have you properly insulated the capacitors (if these have been metal cases which might make contact with the PANEL) with insulating tape?

H. Are all wires and components safely less than about 13/16" max. measured from the PANEL'S surface? If not, bend them down or, if need be, re-solder.


Read APPENDIX F carefully. Install all insulated wires shown as double lines on the wiring Diagrams. As before, leave un-soldered but mechanically connected any wire shown to be attached to a lug to which a future connection is to be made. Be careful to route wires neatly and not too slack. Follow the rules in APPENDIX 7 accurately as concerning the amount of insulation to be stripped off the wires, measuring their lengths, watching out for stray strands, etc...


A. Check each lug for too much solder. A frequent condition is too much solder on a potentiometer lug running down the lug and making contact with the potentiometer case. Correcting is done melting off the excess onto the soldering iron tip and shaking it off the tip.

B. Check each lug to see that connections are made with no more than 1/8th of an inch between the plastic insulation and the lug. Rectify faults as found by re-heating lug and pushing the wire closer into the lug, melting a little new solder on the joint.

C. Check for loose strands at the lug and snip these off if any are found.

D. Check for excess lengths of wire sticking out nowhere from the lug. Each solder Joint should look like a closed fist, and not have a finger of wire sticking out. Snip to correct.

E. Check for enough solder on each_jointt The solder should look as if it has fully soaked into wire and lug.

F. Check for rosin rings showing lack of enough heat or time spent soldering a connection.

G. Beautify the routing of the hires by doing a little straightening and bending using needle nose pliers.


l. Retrieve the PANEL and fit it against the RACK,

2. Position the PC boards by sliding them in the RACK so that they are as perfectly centered as possible.

3. Lay the PANEL aside and lay the RACK on your workbench taking care not to move the PC boards.


Read APPENDIX H and perform the following steps.

1. If there are NTO's or PCO's on this panel, you will need to install an additional set of RED, WHITE, and BLACK cables. These should come off from the panel components as seen from the oscillator wiring diagrams. These will exit the panel on the right side, the same as the set which is connected to the PC boards in the next steps.

2. Daisy chain RED cables to oval pads X on the PC boards.

3. Daisy chain WHITE cables to oval pads Z.

4. Daisy chain BLACK cables to oval pads W.

5. Daisy chain GREEN cables to oval pads Y.


l. Determine the length of the power supply cables you will need to hook up the PANEL to the POWER SUPPLY when the system is operational. To do this, please read APPENDIX J.

2. Solder the appropriate lengths of RED, WHITE, BLACK and GREEN wire to the oval pads furthest on the right of the PC RACK.





3. Bundle the cables together at the right hand side of the RACK and tie together using a tie-wrap. (Tie-wraps are white nylon loops as presently used in tying the PC boards to the rails of the RACK).


A. Check position of RED CABLES. All RED cables should without exception run down the exact middle of the PC RACK. If they connect anywhere else, there is a mistake which could potentially destroy a module when power is turned on!

B. Check position of WHITE CABLES. All WHITE cables should run alongside the top edge of the RACK. Top edge is where pads "Z" can be found.

C. Check position of BLACK CABLES. All BLACK cables without exception should run alongside the bottom edge of the RACK where pads "W" can be found.

D. Check position of GREEN CABLES. Unlike the other cables, GREEN cables may be found in either of two places: Halfway between RED and WHITE, or halfway between RED and BLACK cables. GREEN cables should have a zig zag appearance, connecting to pads "Y".

E. Check component side of the RACK for any power supply cable whose insulation is more than 1/16" away from the PC board hole. Should there be more than 1/16" bare wire showing, rectify by meltinq solder and pushing the wire in.

F. Check all OVAL pads to see that all extra wire has properly been snipped off, wires should extend no more than 1/16" (including solder mound) from the pad. Also check for proper soldering at all pads when you do this check... IT IS EASY T0 MISS SEEING CONNECTIONS WHEN DOING THIS CHECK. Please be careful! Best manner to proceed is to check BLACK connections first, proceeding to RED, WHITE, and GREEN connections. Green pads are hardest to spot, so make sure you spot them first from the component side before looking on the printed side of the PC boards.

G. Check that the cables installed in STEP 9 match in color and position the cables on the RACK. RED to RED, BLACK to BLACK, etc.



1. Use insulated hookup wire and make all solder connections shown in the Wiring Diagrams between the pads on the PC boards and PANEL components. Proceed one module at a time or use step and repeat method (for multiples of identical modules on a PANEL). Please follow APPENDIX l2 precisely!

2. Turn RACK around and snip whatever wire ends show on the component side of the PC boards.


Read Appendix K carefully.

11.1 Use insulated hookup wire and make all solder connections shown in the Wiring Diagrams between the pads on the PC boards and the Panel components. Proceed one module at a time or use step and repeat method (for multiples of identical modules on a Panel). Please follow Appendix K precisely!

11.2 Turn Rack around and snip whatever wire ends show on the component side of the PC boards.


(Refer to Appendix P and wire the second PC board for all the modules which use stacked PC boards.)


Properly soldered connections to square pads should look as in following illustrations:


Check all pads for the following faults:

12.1 Frayed strands of wire at the pad. Snip them if the solder connection looks OK. If not, re-do the connection following the instructions described below.

12.2 Check each and every square pad for the following fault:

(all bad)

Correct by pushing the wire down into the hole while re-soldering the pad. If this doesn't work and the wire frays, retract the wire and snip it to about 3/16" length.

12.3 Check each and every Square pad for the following fault: (Solder looks like a dimple circling the wire, usually with a rosin ring).


Correct by re-heating the pad and wire, making sure that the solder melts into the wire. Don't move the wire until the solder has fully solidified.

12.4 Check each and every pad for the following faults: (This is, by the way, the most treacherous of faults since the insulation hides whether the solder joint is good or bad).

(not good)

Correct by pulling Out less than a 1/16" but while heating the solder. Make sure solder melts fully into the wire. Don't move the wire until the solder has solidified.

12.5 Check each and every connection you have made on the Panel for the following faults:

12.5a Too much solder. Correct as in Checkpoint 7A.

12.5b No more than 1/16" bare wire between lug and the wire's insulation. Correct as in Checkpoint 7B.

12.5c Loose strands at the lug. Snip if you find any.

12.5d Excess wire sticking out of the lug. Should look like a closed fist. Snip to correct.

12.5e Check for rosin rings. Re-heat to correct.

12.5f Check for sufficient solder on a joint.

12.6 Turn Rack component side up and check for wire-ends sticking up through the PC boards. Snip off excess, making especially certain that these snippings do not get lodged under componets or anywhere on the PC board or onto the Panel.


This is a good time to rectify the fault whereby too great a length of wire was used. This may be done by looping the overly long wire once around itself in a small twisted loop. The wires going from the panel to the PC boards should not be bundled or tied together. They should lay neatly between the rows of components and be kept separate for each module.


Install a Black power supply cable between and any pad W that has been left unused to the grounding lug should be installed at the lower left standoff. This step grounds the Panel to the Rack.


Panel and Rack may now be folded together, and screws installed to fasten the Rack to the Panel at the four standoffs. Make sure as you tighten the screws that no wire has gotten caught in between the standoff and the PC Rack.


Check whether or not any wire has gotten caught in between standoffs and Rack. If so, undo the screw and release the wire. Check the wire's insulation to see that it is still covering the wire. Use electrical tape to cover any damage to the insulation.


Follow instructions contained in Appendix M.



Most of these components need several accessory parts in order to be fitted into the Panel. Among these parts are hex nuts and washers. It is important to install these parts in the correct order when fitting components on a Panel. Omitting them, or installing them in the wrong order, will result in a variety of unpleasant consequences. We therefore strongly advise you to carefully observe the "installation order" described in Step 5. The "installation order" is a list of parts to be installed from behind the panel to the front of the panel. For example, the "installation order" for a mini-phone jack is:


Note: The shoulder washer is a special plastic washer with an inner ridge. This ridge is made to fit snugly into a Panel's hole, with the washer fitting flush against the faceplate. Without this part, many of the component would not be centered, and would be smaller than the Mounting hole in the panel.

Trim the hole edges with an X-acto knife if the shoulder washer does not quite fit snugly. Be careful when trimming holes over the double hole sets in the panel no to cut too much off.


Wiring Diagrams show the connections which are made between the front panel components and from the front panel components to the PC board. In the first phase of wiring up a panel, you will be wiring between the front panel components, soldering connecting wires and resistors on some modules (Steps 6 and 7). This is done for all modules on a panel before the wiring to the PC boards is begun (Step 11)

The drawing shows the rear of the panel section for the module. Small circles correspond to banana jacks. Large circles with three nearby small circles represent the potentiometers (pots), with the three smaller circles representing the three lugs on the pots. Rectangles represent mini-jacks, phone jacks or switches. Looking at the rear of these components and the position on the diagram should make it very clear what kind of a component is represented.

There are four types of wires shown:

C.1 DARK LINES show connections to be made with solid bare buss wire supplied in each kit. Although not quite as convenient, these connections may be made using insulated wire.

C.2 LIGHT DOUBLE LINES show connections to be made using insulated #24 hook-up wire supplied with each module kit.

C.3 LIGHT LINES show connections to be made from the panel components to the PC boards. The Square, Circular, or Oval pads are on the associated module's PC board. These connections must be made using the #24 gauge insulated hook-up wire supplied with each module kit.

C.4 LIGHT LINES also show connections which are sometimes made between pads on the PC boards. These are usually shown in the diagrams as connecting two square pads. These pads may be on separate PC boards, so look carefully for a subscript or other identifying marks in the diagram which might indicate different PC boards. The text with the Wiring Diagrams for each module usually emphasizes these special connections.

C.5 SHIELDED WIRE is used for audio connections in some places where shielding must be used to prevent signal interference. Shielded wires have two conductors: one a center strand, similar to regular hook-up wire; and a second outer "shield" which is a multi-strand sheath between the outer insulation and the inner insulation. These two conductors must not touch, or the signal will be shorted out. Often, the shield is connected at one end only, and the text with each module's Wiring Diagram as well as the diagram itself will emphasize this type of wiring when it is employed.

Please note that we have shipped with your kit the types of wire listed above, as well as three lengths of #20 gauge insulated hookup wire in Black, Red and White (these are in the parts for each Panel/Rack). Do not use the last set of wires for making the connections shown on the Wiring Diagrams. These colors are reserved strictly for making a power supply cable.


Good soldering is an art which may easily be learned by following a set of basic rules:

RULE ONE: Use rosin core solder wire only!

RULE TWO: Whenever possible, make sure that a good mechanical joint is made before soldering. A good mechanical joint need not be more elaborate than a single loop around a lug. Of course there are exceptions to this rule, such as connections made to solder pads on a PC board or a solid bare wire through several potentiometer or jack lugs in a line.

RULE THREE: Keep the soldering iron tip clean. It should be shiny. The way to do this is to keep a moistened sponge or paper towel handy to wipe the tip just before making a connection. The idea behind cleaning the tip is that at high temperatures, oxidation of the tip happens quite fast and leaves a film which prevents the solder from wetting (i.e., alloying) the tip. Should you leave a soldering iron ON for a long period of time, you will find that the tip will be so thoroughly oxidized that it will be impossible to use. In that case, you will want to follow the follow this procedure to de-oxidize and clean the tip: First melt solder abundantly all around the tip. Though the solder may not adhere at first, it is the flux, that is important here. What happens is that the flux (at high temperatures) dissolves the oxidation film. Wait a second or two for the flux to fully boil off, shake the tip of excess solder, and wipe the tip on the sponge or towel. Repeat the procedure over and over until the tip becomes shiny and can easily be wetted with solder. At that point the flux will have completely dissolved away all of the oxidation. The rosin inside the core of the solder wire is flux, by the way..... In some extreme cases, the tip may become permanently pitted and corroded and have to be replaced.

RULE FOUR: Never use a soldering iron tip to pry or bend wires or lugs. This will destroy the tip in no time at all. The reason for this is that the tips are coated with a thin layer of special metal that is highly corrosion resistant. Using the tip as a pry bar will scratch some of this coating off, with the unfortunate result that corrosion will quickly start pitting and burrowing the metal underneath the coating. Before you can say #$%&, you will be left with a worthless stub for a tip which, under normal use, should have lasted a long time.

RULE FIVE: Parts to be soldered together should be hot enough to melt solder. The theory behind this rule states that soldering is an alloying process whereby dissimilar metals bond together if and only when brought to a high enough temperature. You should observe the following procedure in order to ensure that the parts are indeed hot enough for a good solder joint to be made:

D.1 Contact the parts to be soldered with the soldering iron tip, positioning it so that the maximum contact can be made (thereby assuring the maximum heat transfer).

D.2 Wait a second or so until the parts get hot enough.

D.3 Apply the solder against the the parts (not just the tip) and wait until the solder melts and thoroughly seats the parts. The process of heating the parts may be speeded up by melting a tiny amount of solder on the tip just before you apply the tip to the parts. The solder on the tip will tend to mold itself around the parts, allowing more heat to be transferred in a shorter time.

In any event, avoid the all too common mistake of melting a whole lot of solder on the tip and letting it glob over parts which will be too cold to alloy properly. Even if the tip and glob were left on the joint long enough to heat all of the parts, the joint will would not be a good one, for the following reason: All of the flux will have been spent on the tip, with none applied to the parts to clean off oxidation. Details about the flux are given in the next paragraph.

RULE SIX: Heat should be applied to a joint long enough for the rosin flux to do its job and finish boiling off the joint. As was said previously, the flux, is there to dissolve the oxidation film that accumulates on all metal parts such as lugs and wires. It does this through a corrosive boiling action, actually boiling the oxidation off the part. When you solder a joint, you should be on the lookout for the rosin to finish boiling off the solder. Should you not wait long enough, the unboiled flux will leave a thin film of rosin having the adverse effect of insulating parts which should be in electrical contact. Such a film may be spotted as a thin ring of left-over rosin around a wire where it meets the solder. Re-heating while applying a little more solder will repair such a joint.

Another ill effect of not waiting long enough for the flux to finish its job is that the oxidation film may not have completely dissolved. This in turn prevents a good solder joint from being made. Such a joint may be identified because the solder will look as though it is not "wet", but rather like opaque water on wax, forming droplet-like shapes, and revealing its inability to form a bond with the surface. Melting more solder (and thereby applying more flux) will correct this situation. Specific details to watch for will be given in later appendices.

RULE SEVEN: Never apply too much or too little solder. Use as much solder as is needed to thoroughly soak a joint, no more, no less. Beware of ending up with solder joints that look like globs. You should be able to distinguish the outlines of the various parts, wires and lugs, sort of the way a fist sculpted out of stone looks. Beware of insufficient solder, also, where one half of a joint is soldered but the other half is not. Insufficient solder is often caused by too little solder being applied or too little time being spent heating the connection. The condition most often shows up in the work of people who are in a hurry, not pausing to spend enough time on the work.

RULE EIGHT: Never move the wires or lug of a joint while the solder is still liquid. Just after retracting the soldering iron tip, you should keep the joint still for a couple of seconds until the solder has clearly solidified. A solder joint which has been moved during the cooling process might become a "cold solder joint". It may work for a while, yet become unexpectedly (and unpleasantly) intermittent at some future time (usually, according the laws of Mr. Murphy, at the most inconvenient time possible).

We have listed all these rules in detail because good soldering is at the heart of building a long lasting and trouble-free system. Here below we list the steps in sequences that are typical at making a good solder connection. A virtuoso of the art of soldering would have no trouble completing these steps in twenty seconds or so. We suggest that you try your hand at practicing a few solder connections using this list, especially if you have never soldered before.


D.4 Loop the wire once around the lug to make a mechanical connection. Use electronic type needle nose pliers.

D.5 Wipe the soldering iron tip against a wet sponge or towel.

D.6 Contact both lug and wire with the soldering iron tip, melting a tiny amount of solder against the tip in order to speed up the transfer of heat to wire and lug.

D.7 Melt just enough solder on the wire and lug to completely soak the joint with solder. Apply the solder against the side of the wire and lug not contacted by the soldering iron tip.

D.8 Wait a second or two for the rosin flux to finish boiling off.


Bare wires are shown as dark lines on the Wiring Diagrams. Resistors, capacitors, LED's are drawn actual size in most diagrams.

Bare wires linking two jacks (banana-to-mini-phone or banana-to-banana) should be made to bridge the two jacks in a straight line suspended above the Panel:

Bare wires shown on the diagrams linking-the lugs of potentiometers should be routed with a minimum of wire (just as they are shown in the diagrams) and should hug close to the Panel's surface. Be careful to route them away from lugs which they might accidentally touch through vibration or inadvertent bending of wires. In several modules, a bare wire is shown linking similar lugs an three or more potentiometers in a line. The best way to accomplish this is to bend the lugs down close to the Panel and to twist their "eye" with electronic plies so that the bare wire may be threaded through all of them, also in a line. Not much force is needed to twist the lugs. Be very careful when doing this not to break the lug off from its insulated Mount.

When wiring a resistor to a potentiometer or jack lug, no more than 1/4" of wire should separate the lug from the resistors body.

Exceptions to this rule may clearly be seen from the spacing shown on the Wiring Diagrams. However, in all cases, route resistor and capacitor leads safely away from other bare wires or lugs which might touch and cause a short circuit.

When you make a mechanical connection (single loop) between a wire and a lug, make sure that you snip off any excess wire that might otherwise short out against another component. Especially treacherous is the close spacing between a pot's body and it's lug. Excess wire or excess solder has been known to run down the lug and short the connection out against the pot's case. Also known to cause problems are wires sticking up from jackt which will touch the PC board traces when the Panel and Rack are closed. The maximum permissible distance of wires, etc. from the Panel's surface is one inch. Watch for this!


Here too, you should imitate the approximate spacings and lengths of the wires on the Panel when wiring the plastic insulated wires on the Panel. Routing should be neat and a minimum of wire used. To make the connections, you should use the #24 gauge stranded insulated wire we have shipped to you in various different colors. To repeat a previous warning: For this job do not use the Red, White, or Black Wire which is packed with the Panel/Rack parts. These heavier wires are reserved for making the power supply cable.

Please follow this procedure in making the connections in Step 7:

F.1 Measure the wire needed for a connection from the lug to lug as shown on the Wiring Diagram, using the wire itself to determine the proper length. Add 5/8" to this length.

F.2 Strip exactly 1/4" of the plastic insulation off both ends of the wire. Be careful not to damage the wire with the strippers. Should you have accidentally cut through some of the strands, it is best to discard the wire and to start afresh with a new one.

F.3 Holding the stripped end of the wire between your fingers, twist the wire into neatly compact strands with no extra strands sticking out.

F.4 Loop through the appropriate lug and, using needle nose pliers (or if you have nimble hands, do it with your fingers) firm the loop up into a tight fold. Be neat. Should the strands get frayed, re-do Step F.3 and twist the strands once again into one compact strand before proceeding. After you have done this step, check to see that there is no more than about 1/16" of bare wire between lug and plastic insulation.

F.5 Solder if this is the only wire shown to connect to the particular lug you are working on. If another wire is shown connecting to this lug for example, a wire that connects to a pad on the PC board) leave the joint unsoldered.

F.6 Snip excess wire and strands off the joint.

F.7 Repeat steps F.3 through F.5 for the other end of the wire.

The precautions to observe when doing this type of connection is as follows:

DON'T use too much wire.

BE NEAT in routing the wire.

WATCH for frayed ends (both before and after soldering)

SNIP the excess wire.

DON'T have more than 1/16" bare wire between lug and insulation.

BEWARE of overheating wires and causing the insulation to melt .... possibly shorting out to pot cases or other nearby conductors.


As was said previously, the Red, White and Black #20 gauge insulated wires are reserved for making power supply connections.

These wires are to be wired piggyback on the component side of the PC board, in a daisy-chain from PC board to PC board in the Rack.

They solder to the oval pads, only, on the PC designated by letters: W, X, and Z.




Making a mistake in wiring these pads and applying power to the panel may result in the destruction of one or more modules. Serge Modular offers a generously comprehensive guarantee for all module except in the case of modules blown out be the miswiring of the power supply wires.

Depending upon the module, PC boards may have anywhere from two to four oval pads for power supply connections.

Pads W, X and Z will always be found at the bottom, middle and top of the PC boar-ds, respectively.

In order to wire up the Rack please proceed according to the steps outlined below. Start with the module furthest to the left, and work you way to the right of the Rack.

H.1 Measure out a piece of wire exactly the distance between a pad and its nearest neighbor (of the same letter, of course) an the adjacent PC board. Note that in some rare cases, you may have to skip over another module which does not use that power supply connection (specifically Analog Shift Registers and Triple Waveshapers). It is advised to leave these wires a little long in case the PC (hmm... whatever he was going to type next - he forgot!)

H.2 Add exactly 1 1/4" to the wire, and snip.

H.3 Strip exactly 3/16" and no more of insulation from both ends of the wire and give a twist to the strands with your fingers.

H.4 Insert one end into one of the two holes of the oval pad, doing this from the component side of the PC board. Bend the lead down against the solder pad in order to secure it against falling out when you turn the Ract, over.

H.5 Insert the other end into the corresponding oval pad on the next module on the right. Bend the lead as above.

H.6 Repeat steps H.1 through H.5 as many times as there are wires of a color on the Panel, resulting in the desired daisy chain.

H.7 When you are finished stringing up the Rack with one color of wire, start soldering the pads. Note that some of the oval pads may only have one wire connected, leaving a hole free. Take care not to clog this hole with solder, since a future connection may have to be made to it.

When soldering, make sure that the leads are fully inserted into the holes. Each wire's plastic insulation should butt flush against the PC board. Make sure, too, to observe good soldering procedure, specifically you will want to watch the solder soak up into the strands of the leads.


How do you plan to arrange the Panel(s) in your system? Where do you want to locate the power supply?

These are questions you must answer for yourself in order to figure out the length of the power supply cable(s). These cables should not be longer than about 5 feet.

To determine the length of cable needed for your Panel, you should make a layout of your entire system, taking into account the type of case (if any) used. Such a layout may conveniently be prototyped using the unfinished Panels in your possession, arranging them on a table top for example. Thereafter you should quite easily be able to determine the proper lengths needed to power each Panel. Note that power supply cables connect to the rigtt side of each Panel, and measurements should be made from that side. Having determined the proper lengths, add 10" to each of the cables.

In this way, if a Panel needs 5 feet of cable, the actual cable should be 5 feet plus 17", or 6 feet 5 inches total. Make a note somewhere with the figures you have come up with.

Here is an example of how a system may be planned out:


This is the last wiring job left to be done on the Panel. Position the Panel and Rack as seen in the diagram below, so that the Panel's edge is aligned just barely touching the Rack's top rail. The printing on the Rack's PC board should be facing so that the lettered pads are right side up. The topside of the faceplate graphics should be face down, and closest to the top rail of the Rack. The Panel faceplate graphics will be both upside down and face down. Keep the Panel and the Rack perfectly aligned while you do the wiring. Problems may arise with wires being either too long or too short if the two become misaligned.

Follow the Wiring Diagrams closely when doing this step. Squares, Circles, and Ovals on the diagrams relate to the pads on a PC board. Wires are to be wired from the lugs on the Panel to the PC solder pads. Do the.wiring one module at a time (except when step and repeat wiring can be done for identical modules).

K.1 Measure the #24 gauge insulated wire you will need to make a connection in a straight line from Panel lug to PC board pad. Use the wire itself to measure the distance.

K.2 Add exactly one inch of wire to the measured length.

K.3 Strip exactly 1/4" of insulation from either end of the wire.

K.4 Install one end and solder to the appropriate lug on the Panel.

K.5 Twist the strands of the other end together and stick it into the center hole of the appropriate PC pad so that slightly less than 1/8" sticks above the hole.


K.6 Apply the soldering iron tip against both the wire and the pad (in order to heat them both).

K.7 Solder until the wire has been clearly soaked and the connection looks as in the following illustration:


K.8 Continue to other wires in the same manner. Note that some connections may call for soldering to a pad which has already been soldered to. In those cases, you should first tin the wire end with solder. Tinning means to soak the strands of the wire end with a minimal amount of solder. Thereafter, you should hold the wire end flat against the pad as in the following example, and apply heat until the solder in the wire end melts with the solder already present on the solder pad. Take care not to move the wire until the solder has cooled enough to solidify!



Soldering to the PC pads is the one job where the most mistakes are made when wiring up a system. Please observe the soldering process carefully, specifically when applying heat to both parts, watching the solder soak into the wire, and waiting long enough for the flux to have evaporated. A properly wetted pad will look like a nipple as in the illustration above. Solder will fill the pad uniformly around the wire. Furthermore, there should be a maximum of 1/32" between the tip of the nipple and where the plastic insulation begin. If there is more (or less) push the wire in (or out) while the solder is still being heated by the iron. A badly soldered joint will look like a dimple or, even worse, like a dimple hidden by the plastic insulation. In such solder joints, the flux has not had enough time or heat to work properly with the result that the wire has not soaked with solder into the strands.

A more subtle bad solder joint is one where the pad does look like a nipple, however the wire is not fully soaked and there is a barely visible rosin flux ring around the strands.


To this catalog we must add the following two examples of terrible solder connections, one with too long a bare.wire, the other with loose and unruly strands. Correction procedures for all bad solder joints are given in the Checkpoint.

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If you do not have Chassis Boxes, skip to sub-step M.5 below.

Retrieve the Chassis Box that came with the Panel you have just completed and perform the following steps:

M.1 Install the four adhesive rubber feet at the four corners of the underside at the box. Position about 1/2" from the sides. Install black Tinnerman nuts on the four screw holes.

M.2 Make a knot consisting of a single loop with the power supply cables connected to the Rack. Position this knot about 4" away from the furthest right hand side of the Rack. Should you have two sets of power supply cables, it does not matter if you loose track of which is which. This knot keeps the cable from pulling on the PC boards in the Chassis Box.

M.3 String the cable through the hole at the bottom of the box. This hole should have the rubber grommet installed into it to prevent the sharp edges of the metal from cutting into the wire insulation.

M.4 Install the Panel into the Chassis Box. The best way to do this is to angle the top side of the Panel at a 30 degree angle into the top of the box. The Panel can now hinge downward into the box. Be careful not to accidentally wedge any of the wires in between the Panel and the box's ledges. DO NOT SCREW THE PANEL DOWN YET. It is best to wait until the Panel has been tested.

M.5 Cut the power supply cable to uniform length and strip a little less than 1/4" insulation from the ends of all the wires.

M.6 Hook the Panel's cable to a 4-pin Cinch-Jones plug as shown below. If your Panel has two sets of cables, twist the stripped strands of the Red wires together and solder to pin #4 of the plug. (Don't forget to slip the plug housing over the cables before soldering.) Do the same for each set White wires, connecting to pin #2 of the plug, then the Black wires, connecting to pin #1.

M.7 Take a cable about about 5" long consisting of red, white and black wires. Install the Cinch Jones Socket following the same pin assignments as in the plug. Form-fit the cable as shown in the previous figure, and install the solder lugs that will be needed to connect to the Power Supply's barrier strip.

M.8 Before proceeding any further, check and double check that the right color wire connects to the right pin number on both Cinch-Jones socket and plug. This is best done by mating the two together, leaving their housing off, and doing a visual check of the match between wires.


N.1 Place knobs on shaft and barely tighten set screw with a small screwdriver.

N.2 Rotate knobs counter-clockwise until you feel the pots are turned completely down (the loose knobs will continue to rotate, but with increased resistance.

N.3 Loosen set screw completely and position knob pointer to the 7 o'clock position.

N.4 Lift knob up slightly so that it does not bind against the lock nut and then tighten the set screw completely.


Mount all components on the small printed circuit board except for the Light Emitting Diode itself. Note the polarity of the diode, and the pattern of the transistor leads. The triangular pattern on the PC board must match the pattern of the leads on the transistor.

Install an LED clip into a shoulder washer and insert the LED into the clip as shown. The plastic clip can be bent apart to insert the LED from the rear... Try to avoid putting too much strain on the leads of the LED.

Place the entire assembly of LED, shoulder washer and clip into the appropriate hole on the Panel, feeding the leads of the LED through the Panel and mounting clip ring. In some cases, the clip ring may be difficult to clip on to the LED clip. If this happens, cut the ring with wire snips or an X-acto knife. Place in position on the LED clip, and carefully, using the soldering iron tip, melt the two plastic parts (clip and ring) together from the inside of the ring. A couple of small (1/16" dia.) melted joints will do to keep it securely in place. Avoid applying heat to the red LED itself.

Mount the assembled circuit board on the rear of the jack as shown while inserting the leads from the LED into one of the sets of holes on the LED PC board. There are two sets of holes for different spacings. The longer lead on the LED goes to the bottom hole as shown in diagram (which is connected to pad X on the small PC board), and the shorter lead into the top hole (which is connected to the 1K resistor).

Bend the tab of the jack and smolder to the large area on the PC board. Solder the LED so that there is little strain on the board and LED assembly, but so that the LED, clip, and shoulder-washer assembly stays securely in place.

Connect the W pad on the LED board to the W pad on the module circuit board in the rails. Connect the X pad on the LED PC board to the X pad,on the associated module PC board in rails. If a number of LED boards are on this panel, you may "daisy-chain" their X and W pads together and connect a single wire from the common X pad wires to a module and a single wire-from the common W pad to the module W pad.


P.1 Stacking PC boards are used in some of our high-density modules, such as the NTO'S, the QVM, and many dual modules such as the 2RVG and 2ASR. The first board for these modules is inserted into the rails (see corresponding module Wiring Diagram if there are two different PC boards) and connected like the rest of the PC boards in the rails for this Panel.

P.2 After the power supply cables have been installed, then the PC Rack can be propped open as shown in the diagram.

P.3 Position the PC board(s) to be stacked as shown. flat on the work table while the PC Rack is propped up. Wire to the Panel components, routing the wires between the other PC boards (not over the outside of the rails). Make sure that the wires will be long enough to reach this top PC board when the PC Rack is folded on to the Panel.

P.4 Use pieces of insulated wires to connect between PC boards pads. For connections that must be made between two stacked boards, sometimes the wires can be short if the connections are along the side of the board only (as in the NTO or QMX). Other times where pads need to be connected, don't make the mistake of making the wires too short. The top PC board should be able to be "swung open" when the standoff screws are removed for inspection of wires, or for future changes or repairs. Double check all connections.

P.5 Connect the power supply pads between the two PC boards if they are not shown in the wiring diagram. Each W, X and Z on the top stacked PC boards should be connected to a corresponding W, X or Z pad on the bottom board (which has its W, X and Z Pads connected to adjacent PC boards as detailed in the section on Wiring the power supply cables. Make sure to get a good connection, with no bare strands sticking out of the oval pad.

P.6 Install the standoffs in the PC mounted board, and fold the top PC board over onto the standoffs, securing with the small screws in the standoffs.

P.7 Visually inspect the space between the two PC boards to see that no wires are crimped between the standoffs and the PC boards. Also look closely to see that components from the bottom board do not touch the PC traces on the top board. If possible, bend these components over slightly to provide adequate spacing.